Skopje

METROPOLIS: JOINT OF HISTORICAL HERITAGE AND URBAN LIVING

Skopje is the capital of the Republic of Macedonia. It is located in the northern part of the Republic of Macedonia, in Skopje Valley. It has favourable geographical and traffic position, which is a starting point for wider communication via road, railway and air traffic.

Skopje is a city in the central part of Balkan Peninsula. It communicates easy with Mediterranean region on the south and regions of Central and Northern Europe on the north. It is connected with Adriatic Sea via Kachanichka Gorge. It is connected with Republic Bulgaria via Kumanovo and Kriva Palanka on the east as well as with Republic Albania via Polog, Kichevo Valley, Ohrid-Prespa Region on the west.

Skopje dates back to pre-antique period. This city had strategic importance during antique period, it was known as Skupi. The excavations from the antique city Skupi are in the locality Zajchev Rid above the inflow of the River Lepenec into Vardar, which is the present village Zlokukani. Skupi was the capital of Dardania.

 

Skopje - the City of Solidarity

The vivid established tempo in Skopje was stopped by the devastating earthquake on 26th July, 1963. There were more than 1.000 dead and about 3.000 severely or lightly injured in the earthquake with intensity of 9 degrees. The total building fund in the city was demolished or damaged about 45%, and a lot of public buildings, cultural objects, and industrial units were demolished or damaged. After the earthquake in 1963, Skopje as the city of solidarity grew into more modern agglomeration where urban linking of the East and West was performed.

Skupi became a legionary camp during Octavian Augustus rule about 13-11 year BC. Afterwards, Skupi became one of the major Roman cities and the most important settlement on the route from Thessaloniki to Danube. The city had a rectangular form covering an area of 40 hectares and a wall which was 3, 2 meters thick therefore it obtained a status of a colony. The city was destroyed by earthquake in 518. Several material traces have been found on the locality of ancient Skupi, and among the significant excavations are parts of the theatre in 1936. The present city was erected after the year 518.

The foundations of the new Skopje were probably laid in the second half of the sixth century by the tsar Justinian I (527-565). The settlement was named Justiniana Prima. It is assumed that Fortress Kale was built during his rule, which is on the left side of the River Vardar. Penetration of Kumani and Slays in the following two-three centuries made this city a target of plunders and devastation therefore the city was developing slowly.

Skopje became a significant Byzantine centre after the ninth century. Skopje was mentioned as an Episcopal seat during Samuil's Empire at the end of the tenth century. The Arabian geographer Idrisi mentioned it as a wealthy city named Iskubia in the twelfth century.

 

Skopje - wide gravitation area

Trade City Centre Occupying 121.000 m2, this is the biggest trade centre in the Balkans.

Skopje is the central settlement in the Republic of Macedonia having favourable geographic-traffic position and wide radius of influential zone as well as its functional role and position out rivals the other city settlements in the country.

The city has wide range of secondary, third and fourth level activities. It represents administrative-ruling, economic, traffic, cultural-educational and health centre in this country.

The city had a great progress during tsar Dushan rule. During that period in Skopje, a cultural and administrative centre, and there was prospering trade improved by the merchants from Dubrovnik. In that period, Dushan's Code was published in Skopje.

During Ottoman rule, Skopje continued to prosper. Turks from Little Asia moved to Skopje. They built a lot of mosques, Turkish baths (Hamams) and inns. Kurshumli an (Lead Inn) was built in the Old Bazaar, Daut Pasha Hamam is a spa erected by the grand vizier of Rumelia. The Stone Bridge over the River Vardar was built in the first half of the fifteenth century. The bridge connects the old part of the city to the new one. Skopje's Aqueduct was built at the end of the fifteenth century on the old road Skopje - Kachanik.

Certain repairs were performed for better water supply in the beginning of the nineteenth century. The Church of St. Spas (Holy Savoir) was built towards the end of the seventeenth century. In the seventeenth century the city was marked by economic, cultural and territorial prosperity as well as developed craftsmanship, trade and leather processing. Skopje was burnt and completely destroyed in 1689 by the order of the Austrian general Piccolomini because of the plaque.

The city could not be restored for longer period in order to match the old one. The city started to prosper again in the nineteenth century, especially after the construction of Vardar Railway in 1873, and even better prosper in 1888 by linking Morava and Vardar Railway. The number of inhabitants was constantly increasing. The number of inhabitants in 1836 was 10.000, in 1858 - 20.000 inhabitants, at the end of the nineteenth century the number increased to 32.000 inhabitants and prior to Balkan Wars up to 47.000 inhabitants.

There are 26 chandeliers set on the fence of the bridge Goce Delchev, as well as 76 flood lights on both sides of the bridge. There are four bronze lions five meters high and five tones weight, set on platforms 3.5 meters high. Accompanying reliefs on the platform contain komitad ji motives.

 

Kale - the fortress of Justinian the First

It is believed that the fortress, also familiar as Skopje Kale (Tower), was inhabited during Neolith and early Bronze Age. There are numerous archaeological data that can witness that. The fortress dates back in the period of the tsar Justinian 1 (535). Due to its strategic location and role, the fortress used to be attack and use very frequently by different invaders.

After the fall of Samuil's Empire (1018), the city was invaded by Petar Deljan (1014-1041). Afterwards, it was attacked by Kumani, Skiti, Pechenzi and some other attackers. Numerous archaeological remains have been found on the Kale. Nowadays, Skopje's Fortress Kale is one of the most remarkable buildings in Skopje where various cultural and tourist motives are present.

The Fortress Kale represents one of the most attractive and complex localities of the archaeological researches. Kale's findings date back from Prehistory through Ancient and Medieval period to the Turkish period and the stormy 20th century.

 

Stone Bridge - the symbol of Skopje since the 15th

The Stone Bridge over the river Vardar was built in the first half of the fifteenth century. The bridge links the old part and the new part of the city. Sidewalk paths were built in 1905, and it was completely renovated in the last decade of the twentieth century. On the river left side, there is a memorial of fired Skopje inhabitants in 1944 during fascist occupation.

Petar Karposh, unbreakable rebel, leader of the great national rebellion in 1689 against Ottoman Imperia, known as Karposh Rebellion, when the territories of Kriva Palanka, Kratovo and Kumanovo area were liberated. He proclaimed himself to be the King of Kumanovo. He was squashed onto a club by the Ottoman Turks in Skopje in 1689. The monument of Karposh is set on the eastern side of the Stone Bridge, on the left bank of the Vardar.

There were 13 domes on the original bridge, having 215 meters length and 6 meters width. New interventions were started in 1992 in order to return the original appearance of the Stone Bridge, therefore the original width of the bridge is restored.

 

 

Square Macedonia - The core link of the city units on the left and right Vardar sides 

The Square Macedonia in Skopje was more precisely shaped during the period between the First and Second World War i.e. from 1920 to 1940. Its location is in the context of the Stone Bridge the core link of the city units on the left and right Vardar sides. There were situated important objects around it: The National Bank, The Post Office, Officer's House, The Department Store Na-Ma, the hotel Macedonia, Ristikjeva Palace.

However, after the Second World War and especially after the disastrous earthquake in 1963, a part of the objects were demolished therefore the square in Skopje has quite different look now. There are very important administrative, cultural, trade, bank, catering tourist and other buildings in its surrounding. In the vicinity of Square Macedonia, the Square Pela with Gate Macedonia is located, as a real gate on the entrance of the square.

 

The Memorial House of Mother Theresa

Built on the place next to the place of her birth house.

The Memorial House and monument of Mother Theresa (1910-1997) are located on the street Macedonia in the centre of the city of Skopje. They are dedicated to the great humanist Agnesa Gonxha Bojaxhiu - Mother Theresa, born in Skopje, a winner of Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. Nowadays, the order of Mother Theresa has more than 3000 nuns and 500 monks in more than 100 countries all over the world. 

Mother Theresa is the honoured citizen of her birth city Skopje, she visited the city four times in 1970, 1978, 1980 and 1986 after she had left to perform her missionary work helping to the hungry and lonely.

 

 

The  Old Skopje Bazaar

In Skopje, the Old Skopje Bazaar is over the Stone Bridge on the left side of Vardar. This is a part of the city with various and rich history, tradition, culture and architecture, nowadays there has been made a connection between the old and new, economy and trade, culture and tradition. Due to the historical, developing and time occasions, culture of organization and tradition of living there are a large number of well preserved and functional objects from Ottoman period also new built objects as a feature of the modern period in the Old Skopje Bazaar.

We are talking about Skopje Bezisten, Kapan An, Suli An, Kurshumli An, Daut Pasha Hamam, Chifte Hamam, the church St. Spas (Holy Savior), the church St. Dimitrij, the complex museums of Macedonia (historical, archaeological and ethno museums).

The Old Skopje Bazaar, which dates back to the twelfth century, had the most active development from 15th to 19th century and represents a complex economic-trade, architectonic and cultural-traditional unit. It was built in oriental style; there are several wider and narrower streets and cobblestones streets. Different craftsmen and trade shops detached one to other in a row. There are different traditional crafts such as blacksmiths, goldsmiths, potters, shoemakers, tailors, watchmakers, tinsmiths, coppersmiths, saddlers and other various production-catering services. Also, there are various active shops for modern industrial goods that can be found only here. The Old Skopje Bazaar has the biggest green market in Skopje. The bazaar is the centre of the most attractive catering shops offering various traditional dishes.

 

 

Daut-Pasha Hamam (15th century) an impressive monument of Islamic architecture and an art gallery 

Daut Pasha Hamam is a bath erected during 15th century by the grand vizier of Rumelia. There is quiet great probability that it was built by the masons of the famous Debar Masonry School. Built in the centre of Skopje, at hundred meters from the Bridge Stone, the hamam is in details renovated in 1948. The most impressive part is the roof, consisted of 13 unequally distributed cupolas. 15 rooms exists in the inner part, different by size, mutually connected by pillar Passovers decorated by oriental ornaments. Besides Chifte Hamam and Mala Stanica, nowadays is part of the National Gallery of Macedonia. 

Daut Pasha Hamam has at its disposal a collection dating back to 15th and 16th century including collection of paintings dating back to 18th to 19th century, as well as the modern Macedonian painting. Exhibition stand - Nowadays permanent pedestal was formed in 2011, as presentation of the development of the Macedonian plastic art dating back to 4th to 20th century.

 

 

Kurshumli An (16th century) the biggest former caravan-seraglio - a recognizable historical heritage of Skopje

It is supposed that the imposing Kurshumli An (Lead Inn) was built in the middle of 16th century. It consisted of two parts - one as accommodation for traders and the goods, and the other the stall, the utility rooms and the rooms for servants. For a long period it served as a collection place for traders and their caravans and it had important role in the development of the trade life in the city.

The role of lodging place remained till the end of 19th century and then it was converted into prison. There is a belief that it obtained the name during the 19th century, due to the roof made of lead. The inner part of Kurshumli An is magnificent.

Delicious tranquillity prevails, and due to the construction manner it creates an echo effect. Semi-circular walls make impression at the second floor and the sadirvan in the middle of the in. Nowadays, rockery of Archaeological Museum is located in the An, put in the cells of the ground floor. Each cell consists of monuments originating the same area and the same period starting from 1st century BC till the late antique (4th century), when Macedonia was Roman province. The collection includes 130 monuments. 

 

 

Suli An (15th century) 

The city's inn is a gallery and museum today. Suli An is an object from 15th century, built by lsak Bey. It was built-up in the 16th century therefore some trade shops were on the upper floors. 

During the earthquake, it was seriously damaged but it was rebuilt regaining its original look. Nowadays, it is a seat of the Gallery of Contemporary Arts and Art Faculty, and since 1983 the Museum of Old Skopje Bazaar is situated as well.

 

 

The Clock Tower (16th century) the first clock-tower in Ottoman Empire

The clock-tower dates back to the middle of 16th century or more precisely from 1566 to 1572. It is believed that it is the first clock-tower in Ottoman Empire as a part of Sultan-Murat mosque. It is 40 m high and it is consisted of several parts finishing with a dome. 

The clock was lost during the earthquake (1963) in Skopje when the tower was seriously damaged. Nowadays, this remarkable building attracts great attention.

 

Mustapha-Pasha Mosque (1492) 

One of the most beautiful and most opulent buildings from Ottoman period in Skopje

Mustapha-Pasha mosque was built by Skopje commander Mustapha pasha in 1492. It is located opposite Skopje's Kale entrance. The mosque represents a square architectonic platform built with decorative marble blocks with various ornaments. 

The minaret is built with travertine blocks. Inside of this mosque are the wealthy decorated sarcophagi of Uma - the daughter of the mosque founder, then sadirvan, remains of imarets, Muslim religious secondary school etc. Nowadays, it represents a significant cultural monument and a place for spiritual pray of Muslims believers.

 

The Memorial of Skenderbeu a hero who fought for universal values 

George Kastrioti - Skenderbeu (1405-1468) is a national hero from Albania, fighter for freedom from Ottoman invasion. It is a work by the sculptor Toma Tomai Dema Bekir from Albania, the monument was exposed in 2006. 

Skenderbeu is considered as a great leader, who promoted and fought for European values against Ottoman invasions in the Balkan. The exposure of the monument in Skopje is a confirmation of co-existing traditional city spirit.

 

Church St. Spas (Holy Saviour) (17th century) the iconostasis of the church is among the most magnificent Miyak's carving works

The church St. Spas (Holy Savior) was built at the end of the seventeenth century. It is located on the right side of the fortress Kale. It looks quite small and not noticeable, but it has great importance. The iconostasis has an extraordinary value, it was being made whole 5 years and it was finished in 1824.

It was made by the brothers Petre and Marko Filipovski from the village Gari and Makarie Frchkoski from Galichnik. The stone sarcophagi with the relics of Macedonian revolutionary Goce Delchev is placed in the church yard. It was made by the brothers Petre and Marko Filipovski from the village Gari and Makarie Frchkoski from Galichnik. The stone sarcophagi with the relics of Macedonian revolutionary Goce Delchev is placed in the church yard.

The stone sarcophagus including the relic of the Macedonian revolutionary Goce Delchev is located in the church yard.

Iconostasis is 10 meters long and it matched three church naves. The scenes of the Bible are complemented by decorative elements - leaves, flowers, animals and motives of geometric ornaments. Besides the dominant baroque style, styles of wood-carving arts of the medieval art interweave, then motives of Gothic art and renaissance, naturalistic motives, compositions of Rococo style, as well as may motives of East art. By such interweave, Miyaks created unique style that soon reached the top of the wood carving.

 

Museum of Macedonia complex institution consisted of archaeological, ethnological, historical section as well as art section 

Located in the Old Bazaar, above Skopje Kale. The first Archaeological Museum in Macedonia was formed in 1924, and in 1945 the National Museum of Macedonia was established. In 1949 special units of the National Museum were transformed in Archaeological Museum and Ethnological Museum. The beginning of the Historical section dates back to 1952. The current museum complex was built in 1967. Covering an area of over 10.000 m2, at one place people may see systemized collection of cultural and historical heritage of Macedonia starting from prehistory to nowadays.

Ethnology - The section consists of 18.000 ethnologic items that chronologically date back to 10th-20th century: national dresses, jewellery and crafts, architecture, carving and ceramics, national music instruments, as well as numerous wood and metal household objects

History - Rich collection of Slav-Byzantine period, Ottoman-Turkish government in Macedonia, cultural renaissance, national-revolutionary movement, the period between two World Wars till NLW and post military construction of Macedonia

Archaeology - The existing exhibition consists of archaeological items from the excavations through the whole country: from Palaeolithic, neolith, bronze and iron time, through Roma and antique period, till the Slav-Byzantine period.

 

Museum of the City of Skopje witness for Skopje - from neolith to nowadays 

The Museum is located in the adjusted part of the Old Railway Stations, ruined in the earthquake in 1963. Relatively protected part of the building is nowadays in function of the Museum, having at disposal an area of 4.500 m-, 2.000 m of which being an exhibition place.

The Museums owns about 22.000 museum items from Skopje region, distributed in parts for archaeology, history, ethnology and History of arts. "Walk through the past" is permanents lectern in the Museum covering the period from prehistory to the beginning of 20th century for Skopje and its surrounding.

The items from Govrlevo are founding structure of the prehistoric part of the existing archaeological exhibition in the museum. Different anthro-pomorphic and zoomorphic statues are located next to the Great Mother. Found in 1981, the neolith dwelling Govrlevo was established 8000 years ago meaning the early neolith, it increased intensively and died in the late neolith, 4000 years ago.

The collection of lithographic monuments in front of the museum consists of thirty stone monuments from the antique city of Skupi, discovered at the locality Zajchev Rid, at just 5 kilometres from now centre of the city. The city museum owns about 23.000 items from Skupi. Chronological transaction may be made by these stone monuments through the material and spiritual culture in Roman period from 1st to 3rd century. The four grave coffins next to the entry of the museum were discovered in Karposh 3, one of the most urban settlements of current Skopje.

 

 

Museum of Macedonian Struggle 

Museum of Macedonian Struggle for Statehood and Autonomy, Museum of VMRO and Museum of Victims of Communistic Regime.

Located near the Stone Bridge, at the left riverside of Vardar. Built in the period from 2008 to 2011, and officially opened on 8th September 2011. It consisted of 13 units where the history of Macedonian people has been presented chronologically starting from the period of robler's time till the period of socialism.

The lectern of the original of the Declaration for Independence of Macedonia is located at the very entry of the Museum. 109 wax figures of persons from the Macedonian history are put in the Museum, as well as major number of original weapons and furniture, massive scenes and documents.

Founders of VMRO Wax figures of the founders of the Organisation in joint scene. Declaration for Independence on the way to the Museum at the Independence Day of Macedonia in 2011. Creshovo topche (Cherry wood cannon) in front of the Museum - Main symbol of the weapons from Ilinden Uprising. It had tactical function in the Uprising, causing confusion and disorientation in the lines of Turkish warrior.

 

Holocaust Museum 

Holocaust Memorial Centre of the Jews from Macedonia

The Holocaust Museum is a newly built facility at the location of, then Jewish neighbourhood, near Stone Bridge, as one of the four museums in the world, besides the museums in Jerusalem, Washington and Berlin. It is dedicated to the Macedonian Jews (7.148 people) deported in the camp of death Treblinka in Poland during the Second World War. Permanent exhibition is located there presenting the life of Jews in Macedonia and wider in the Balkan.

Three urns with Jews' ash - In 1961 the urns were brought to Macedonia and exhibited in Bitola, Skopje and Shtip, places from where in the night between 10th and 14th March 1943 almost all Jews from Macedonia were collected and till the end of March deported from Skopje's Monopole to Poland.

Museum of Modern Art

Discovery, caring and widening of the modern art and culture.

The Museum of Modern Art is located at Skopje Kale. Built in 1970 as donation by the Polish governments, following the earthquake in Skopje in 1963. It covers an area of 5.000 m2- in three mutually connected wings.

The room for the existing lecterns, the halls for temporary exhibitions, the teaching hall, film and video projections, library and archives, conservation workshop, depots, administration and other utility services are located there. It has valuable international collection at its disposal presenting representative view of the Macedonian modern art.

 

Vodno a magnificent view towards Skopje and unrepeatable cable-car ride from Sredno Vodno to the Millennium Cross 

Vodno is a hill erecting above Skopje at 1.061 meters altitude. There is the Millennium Cross, the monastery complex St. Pante-lejmon, and Vodno has a park-forest, mountain houses, and more catering objects with fine tracks, car parks and wide panorama views.

You can see approximately the whole Skopje valley and the city of Skopje from Vodno. Vodno is one of the most visited areas in the vicinity of Skopje. In June 2011 the cable-car from Sredno Vodno to Millenium Cross was put into function, having road bed of 1.750 meters and climb from 570 to 1.068 meters altitude. The cable-car has 28 cabs at disposal having caring capacity of 640 kilos and capacity of eight persons, as well as two cabs for four persons. At the outer side the gondolas are equipped with bike holders. 

The Millennium Cross was built in the year 2000 on the top of Krstovar (1.061 altitude) on Vodno, nearby Skopje. It was built due to the cross of the second into the third millennium.

 

St. Pantelejmon (Panteleimon) Monastery Gorno Nerezi (12th century)

Renaissance beginning of fresco painting, 140 years before the appearance of renaissance in Italy.

The whole city of Skopje and its region can be seen from the monastery St. Pantelejmon from bird's-eye view, like on a television screen, from the heart of the Mount Vodno. This monastery has the most significant fresco painting in Macedonia and it is one of the most valuable works in Europe. Here, in Macedonia, in this monastery, the Renaissance in fresco painting begins, and that is one full century and a half before the appearance of the Renaissance in Italy of Giotto. The monastery was built in 1164, during the Byzantine dynasty of Comnenus. 

That is written on the marble board set above the door. The best builders and icon-painters made their best work. It is built with stone and tiles in shape of a cross-in-square plan in a rectangular space and five cupolas. The monastery survived a fire, an earthquake, many destructions and pillages but remained a holy and bright witness of the rich ecclesiastic and cultural life in the 12th century of the church and metropolitan centre in Skopje.

This monastery is present in all the important encyclopaedic issues in the world, regarding culture and art. The fresco painting dating back to the 12th century represents the holy warriors and eremites (first zone), the great feasts (second zone). The most important are the frescoes Lamentation and Descent from the Cross. Also wonderful are the compositions: The Assumption of the Holy Mother, The Meeting of Our Lord, The Holy Mother with Jesus Christ and Saint Pantelejmon.

"Lamentation" Here are expressed for the first time the feelings of sorrow and tears in the face of the Holy Mother, who with tears on her face is caressing and grieving, hugging the dead body of her only son, Lord Jesus Christ. That is the element-herald of the realism of the Renaissance.

 

Matka – natural beauty above Skopje and complex objects for pleasant enjoyment

Matka, the butterfly valley, is very characteristic locality nearby Skopje. It is located north-west of Skopje on the end of the river Treska along Shishevo Gorge. Matka is a complex of a deeply engraved canyon and the first artificial accumulation in the Balkan Peninsula was built there in 1938.

There are more caves, mountaineering training centre, tidy flow of Treska for white water rafting, a complex of more monasteries, a mountain hostel, restaurants, catering objects, breath-taking nature with rich flora and fauna. The accumulation occupies 0.25 km2. It is 5.9 km and 2.6 million m3 useful areas. Its function is to produce electrical power for Skopje.

 

St. Andrej Monastery, Matka (1389) - rarely kept form of free cross in Macedonia 

 

The monastery is located in the canyon of the river Treska. It was built by the second son of king Volkashin - Andreja, in 1389. It has a form of stretched trikonhos with a middle arch shaped dome. The fresco painters of the monastery are the metropolitan Jovan and monk Grigorij, who also worked in the Transfiguration of Our Lord Monastery in Zrze.

The frescoes in St. Andrej represent a new wave in our Middle Ages painting and are a stamp of the new style, with the appearance of the hesychia in the monk movement. In three zones the frescoes of the holy warriors are represented: Gorgi, Dimitrij, Teodor Tiron and Teodor Stratilat in full stature, as well as the frescoes with scenes of The Life of God Jesus Christ. The writings are in Greek and Church Slavic languages.

 

The Great mother - goddess of fertility

For the first time terracotta image of the Great mother was discovered in Tumba Madjari, represented by till not unknown manner among the neolith cultures from different Balkan regions. The impressive dimensions of 39 centimetres height, the classic calm figure of vigilance over the home fireplace make this terracotta exclusive.

The lower part of the figure represents the home protected by itself. Macedonian neolith is characterised by cult towards the Great Mother. These types of figures were found almost in all neolith locations in Macedonia, but maybe the most beautiful is the Great Mother from Tumba Madjari.

Neolith dwelling Tumba Madjari

Archaeological locality and outside museum

The locality is located in the current settlement of Chento and it represents the most significant dwelling in Skopje valley from the neolith - early Stone Age. The life here happened in continuity between 6000 and 4300 year BC, economic wealth and cultural prosperity in the medieval neolith (5800-5200 BC). Major number of ceramic findings is found there, exhibited in the Museum of Macedonia.

From 2008 to 2010 several houses were built in the spirit of neolith architecture where different inventory is presented for the purpose of reconstruction of the life of neolith man. The houses are made of wood, weed, straw, mud covered and built according to the neolith tradition. The distribution of the objects discovered at the locality points out of conceived organization, closely connected to the importance and role of the temple.

 

Skupi - city of Roman and late antique age

Skupi is an archaeological locality five kilometres northwest of Skopje, close to Zlokukjani village, the archaeological researches from 1966 till now have been performed by the Museum of the City of Skopje.

The walls, the theatre, the civil basilica, the city villa, the city bath, the street cardo, Christian basilica as well as parts of east and west necropolis have been under research till now. This Roman city was probably formed in the period from 13th to 11th century BC.

During the 2nd century Skupi obtained representative image where the monumental theatre took the central place. In 4th century the increase of the construction activity was noted when the most representative construction - the Basilica was built, and till the end of 4th century or in the beginning of 5th century one more early Christian church was built.

In 518 Skupi was ruined due to catastrophic earthquake thus breaking the urban life even though there are indications that the life in form of small Slav rural dwelling continued till lath and 11th century.

 

Aqueduct

More water was put from the springs of the slopes of Skopska Crna Gora. It is located two kilometres north from Skopje. It is built of stone and bricks and till now it counts 55 archs shorn to massive pillars.

In spite of the connection with Skupi, due to the similarity in construction with Kurshumli An, the consideration is that it was built in 15th century when Skopje started to increase the new Islamic buildings requiring huge amounts of clear water for their construction and functioning. The amounts of water was constant and with guaranteed inlet through the whole year.

 

Marko's Monastery St. Dimitrij, village Sushica (14th century) spiritual peace and quiet thorough the centuries 

About 20 km from Skopje, near the Marko River and the village Sushica, its where this monastery is located, called Marko's, because its founders were king Volkashin and his son king Marko. The writing above the south entrance, inside the church, gives information about the construction of the monastery church (1345), also of the founders. The church is in the form of a cross built of stones and tiles.

The frescoes date back to the 14th century: rich illustrations of the akathistos of the Holy Mother, Christ's miracles, His prophets, hermits and warriors. The most famous fresco in this monastery is The Lamentation of Rachel, where the human drama is presented through the murder of the children of Bethlehem.

The monastery has a great church, cultural and historical heritage: old icons, manuscripts and books, many church objects and relics.

There was a monastic way of life intensified with transcriptional and educational work. In the 19th century, prior of the monastery was the Macedonian leader of national revival and writer Kiril Pejchinovich, who founded a school in the monastery and here he wrote his famous book Mirror.

 

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